In this section you will find a map that will allow you to navigate through the whole territory of Emilia-Romagna, discovering the experiences of co-operative regeneration and some of the main stages in the history of the co-operative movement.
Moreover, a timeline containing the fundamental dates of the history of co-operation and the initiatives of Co-operative Regeneration will help you to place these events in time, as well as in space, highlighting their connections and links.
September 27 1854
The Warehouse of the General Workers’ Association, the first Italian co-operative, was founded in Turin.
June 22 1874
The entrepreneur Giuseppe Bucci gives the company to his employees: the Cooperativa Ceramiche of Imola was founded, which today boasts a century and a half of history. It is not a WBO but it is the first case in Italy of a company moving from a capitalist to a co-operative form.
December 21 1884
The first Co-operative
I was founded in Rochdale, near Manchester, and it is considered the first successful co-operative in the world.
October 10 1886
National Federation of Co-operatives and Mutual Societies
The National Federation of Co-operatives and Mutual Societies (since 1893 Lega nazionale delle cooperative e mutue; today Legacoop) was founded in Milan, the central representation and coordination centre of the movement.
August 19 1895
The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA) is founded in London. It represents the movement worldwide.
August 8 1896
Society of sulphur mines of Romagna
Following the bankruptcy of the Romagna Sulphur Mining Company, which operated in Perticara (Rn), 300 unemployed workers founded a co-operative that continued the mining activity. It is a workers buyout process ante litteram.
July 1 1923
First International Co-operatives Day
The first International Co-operatives Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in July. It was recognized by the UN in 1994.
April 25 1945
Liberation and the definitive defeat of fascism are the prelude to a flourishing of co-operative enterprises.
December 14 1947
Law no. 1577, better known as the “Basevi Law”, regulates co-operative matters in the new democratic and republican Italy.
January 1 1948
The Italian Constitution enters into force, Article 45 of which says ” The Republic recognizes the social value of co-operatives that pursue business that is not for profit and based on mutuality. The law helps and promote the growth of co-operatives in order to safeguard their missions and goals.”.
January 27 1951
Following the bankruptcy of a company that produced soaps in Lugo, the unemployed workers founded the Cooperativa Lughesina which, after several mergers, now has the name of Deco Industries and it is one of the main manufacturing co-operatives in Italy.
April 17 1959
Ban on demutualization
The Court of Cassation establishes that Italian co-operatives cannot transform themselves into conventional enterprises. Demutualization is therefore banned.
January 1 1963
The six shareholders of a company in Campogalliano (Mo) of weighing instruments born in 1949 decided to transform the company into a co-operative, under the name of Co-op Bilanciai, which today operates internationally.
June 25 1969
The workers of a Modenese foundry in crisis began a self-management process, which six years later led to the transformation into a co-operative under the name of Fonderie Cooperative Reunite (Co-operative Foundries United). In 1983 it merged with Co-op Fonditori, founded in 1950 on the initiative of some workers dismissed from the Valdevit and Vismara foundries.
January 1 1973
The Regional League of Emilia-Romagna Co-operatives was born. Today, Legacoop Emilia-Romagna.
December 16 1977
Law No 904, also known as the ‘Pandolfi Law’, encourages the economic strengthening of co-operatives by excluding from taxable income indivisible reserves that cannot be distributed among members: the tax savings of co-operatives become greater the more they decide not to distribute profits and to allocate them to capitalisation.
May 17 1978
The loss of jobs after the bankruptcy of the Lugo (Icel) Electrical Conductor Industry led former employees to refound the company in a co-operative form, under the name Icel Coop, which still stands out in its sector today.
March 19 1983
Law No 72, known as ‘Visentini-bis’, provides that co-operatives may constitute or be shareholders in companies with share capital.
January 1 1984
Industrial Ceramics Livorno
The Federation of Co-operatives of Livorno helps the workers of a local company in bankruptcy to regenerate the company in co-operative form, by giving birth to Ceramica Industriale Livorno. The event induced the political class at the time to think of a dedicated legislative measure, which would later be called the “Marcora law”.
February 27 1985
Law no. 59, also known as the “Marcora Law”, defines an institutional path through which the workers of traditional companies on the verge of bankruptcy can carry out a rescue by setting up a co-operative: this process then takes the name of workers buyout.
January 1 1986
Cfi is born
Following the Marcora law, Cooperazione finanza industriale – today Cooperazione finanza impresa (Co-operation Finance Enterprise) – was born. It is an institutional investor participated by the Ministry of Economic Development, mutual funds, numerous co-operative enterprises and some other subjects.
January 31 1992
Law no. 59 introduces the co-operative participation shares, the figure of the subsidising member and mutual funds.
February 16 1993
Gestiform (today, Coopfond)
Gestiform, Legacoop’s mutual fund, was born. In 1998, it changed its name to Coopfond.
March 9 1995
Charter of Co-operative Values
The National League of Co-operatives (Legacoop) approves the Charter of Values, which summarizes the guiding principles of the movement.
October 17 2001
President Ivano Barberini
Ivano Barberini, from Modena, is the first Italian to be elected president of the International Co-operative Alliance.
January 17 2003
Legislative Decree 6
Legislative Decree no. 6 distinguishes between co-operatives in prevalent mutuality and non-prevalent mutuality enterprises.
November 7 2009
Following the risk of bankruptcy of the Lincra company in Sant’Ilario d’Enza (Re), the workers – almost all women – took over the company in a co-operative form, renamed it Art Lining and successfully continued the production of tie interiors.
June 1 2011
The former workers of the company Ceramica Magica in Scandiano (Re), on the verge of bankruptcy, regenerate the company by creating the Greslab co-operative. It represents one of the best-known workers buyouts of the crisis that began in 2008.
September 17 2013
Raviplast was born in Ravenna, one of the main examples at national level of co-operatives born from the ashes of a traditional enterprise following the rescue carried out by workers.
January 26 2015
Sixty members of the historic 3Elle co-operative in Imola, which ended in an arrangement with creditors, take over a branch of the company and set up the 3ElleN co-operative. It is the first case in Italy of workers buyouts triggered by a co-operative crisis.